What are eukaryotes? Living organisms including humans are made up of one or more cells. Based on the fundamental structure of cells, these living organisms can be classified into one of the two groups – eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Eukaryotes have membrane-bound nucleus while prokaryotes lack membrane-bound cell nucleus. The membrane-bound nucleus of eukaryotes hold genetic materials.
We know that cells are considered as the basic component of life and living tings. They are the basic building blocks of life and they explain what it is like being ‘alive’. The concept is deep rooted in the cell theory which was first proposed by German scientists Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann during 1830s. The theory states that all living organisms are composed of cells. Later studies on the cells help us to understand that cells organize things and they come with a selective barrier which we call as a its membrane. This membrane controls the flow of chemicals in and out of the cell. But here the question is not about the cells. What are eukaryotes and how do they differ from prokaryotes?
What are eukaryotes?
Eukaryotes are living organisms that are made up of cells that have a membrane-bound organelles and a membrane-bound nucleus. Eukaryotes keep genetic materials within a nucleus in the cells. In eukaryotes, DNA is arranged into chromosomes. These eukaryotes organisms can be single-celled or multi-celled. All animals and plants are eukaryotes. Fungi and protists also fall under the category of eukaryotes.
An ideal eukaryotic cell contains plasma membrane, nucleus and nucleolus, chromosomes, rhibosome, vesicle, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, lysosome, centrioles, andmitochondria.
What are prokaryotes?
Prokaryotes are living organisms that are made up of cells that lacks a membrane-bound organelles or a membrane-bound nucleus. This implies that Prokaryotes doesn’t keep genetic materials in nucleus within the cells. DNA of prokaryotes is less structured than that in eukaryotes. They have a single loop DNA while in eukaryotes DNA is arranged into chromosomes. While most prokaryotes are single-celled there are multi-celled organisms in this category. The Bacteria and the Archaea are the two sub-groups of prokaryotes.
A ideal prokaryotic cell contains a cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, flagella and pili, nucleoid, and plasmid.